Such oath swearing would be understandable sopra view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Such oath swearing would be understandable sopra view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Therefore, the degree onesto which the central government and its agents were involved durante the dissemination of the imperial image con the early Colmare must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined

A passage durante Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [verso religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced con great numbers and quickly distributed onesto the armies throughout the Riempire. This practice may be implied mediante verso passage in Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) con which Augustus’ adopted chant and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal esatto that of Augustus, was shown (i.addirittura., durante effigy) sicuro all the armies: filius [Tiberius], socio imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes per exercitus ostentatur. Needless esatto say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around esatto all the armies throughout the Completare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer esatto his image mediante one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed puro them.

Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares to all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Innumerevoli lares geniumque ducis, in questo momento tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina punta colunt (“The city has a thousand Lares and the Genius of the leader [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.ancora., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need sicuro distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult durante Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced sopra bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images in a relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as per the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true mediante the case of the distribution of life-size models per plaster or argilla onesto meet the great demand of cities and municipalities preciso honor a new Princeps by setting up his image durante many different contexts.

Needless to say, such a taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective

The portraits of Caligula that have quale down esatto us — regardless of the sensitivo of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, preciso varying degrees, a given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula durante all mass media that must have once existed during his principate, only per small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are verso few small bronze busts, several cameos, and a couple of glass-paste medallions. Per good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes sopra verso more obvious fashion than others. The re-cutting of a portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as a result of some sort of ingegno damnata, is a well-known phenomenon con Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner con this collection of essays.

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